Graphite exhibits the properties of a metal and a nonmetal, which makes graphite suitable for many industrial applications. The metallic properties include thermal and electrical conductivity. The nonmetallic properties include inertness, high thermal resistance, and lubricity. The combination of conductivity and high thermal stability allows graphite to be used in many applications such as refractories, batteries, and fuel cells. Lubricity and thermal conductivity make graphite an excellent material for high-temperature applications, because it results in a material that provides effective lubrication at a friction interface while furnishing a thermally conductive matrix to remove heat from the same interface. Lubricity and electrical conductivity allow its use as the primary material in the manufacture of brushes for electric motors. A graphite carbon brush effectively transfers electric current to a rotating armature while the natural lubricity of the brush minimizes frictional wear.