Mobile energy markets, currently the second largest consumer of graphite (25%), are also showing promising growth over the short and longer term. Graphite is used in the electrodes of a number of battery types including Li-ion, where it is intercalated with lithium ions - creating a very stable battery that provides a high energy density.
Lithium-ion battery with high specific energy, high voltage, long cycle life, self-discharge rate, no －memory effect and environment-friendly, etc., has been widely used as a portable electronic devices and electric vehicles energy. Most portable devices such as mobile phones, laptops, mp3 players or digital cameras use lithium‐ion batteries. The evolution of electric vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles and plug in electric vehicles has changed this the result is rapidly growing demand for lithium‐ion batteries. High‐purity large‐flake graphite is essential for the production of these batteries. There is 10 to 20 times more graphite within a lithium‐ion battery than lithium. This is because graphite is the preferred anode material for most battery designs, as the anode requires a carbon material that is porous. An average hybrid electric vehicle requires over 10 kg of graphite, while an average electric vehicle requires 70 kg